Saturday, December 9, 2017

Sky and Ground Thermal Data for NearSys Station, 9 December 2017

The coldest ground temperature is 11 *F And the overhead stratus clouds have a temperature of 2 *F. Assuming a dry adiabatic lapse rate of 5.4 *F per 1,000 feet, the cloud base is 1,700 feet AGL.

Visibility at NearSys Station, 9 December 2017

It's a overcast day at NearSys Station and slightly foggy. The UAVSonde flight indicates that the visibility from NearSys Station is 30 miles.

Looking East

Looking North

Looking South

Looking West

Sunday, December 3, 2017

Ground and Sky Thermal Observation for NearSys Station, 3 December 2017

Observations at 5:30 PM MST indicated the ground had a temperature of 18 *F and the clouds had a temperature of 0 *F. Assuming a dry adiabatic lapse rate of 5.4 *F per 1,000 feet predicts the broken stratus has a base height of 3,300 feet.

Thermal image of the broken stratus over NearSys Station.

The appearance of the broken stratus over NearSys Station.

Saturday, December 2, 2017

All Sky Photometer for NearSys Station, 2 December 2017

Photometer data was collected in a foggy and cloudy data. The clouds thinned, but the sky did not clear up at 1:30 PM MST.


UAVSonde for NearSys Station, 2 December 2017

UAVSONDE data was collected at 5:20 PM MST, shortly before it got dark. Here are the data.

Altitude: 2,266 feet
Temperature: 57 *F
Relative Humidity: N/A
Pressure: 934.1 mb

Altitude: 2,634 feet
Temperature: 64 *F
Relative Humidity: N/A
Pressure: 912.7 mb

I think it's pretty obvious this weather station is getting old. I plan to either make a new one or purchase a new one. A suitable replacement weather station must have a wireless remote with a range of 400 feet, at a minimum.

Visibility for NearSys Station, 2 December 2017

The UAVSonde recorded the following images from 400 feet AGL. As you can see, it was a foggy morning at 9:00 AM MST. Fortunately, the UAVSonde remained visible from the ground while recording images.

The visibility is not the same in each direction, it appears greatest towards the east at four miles.

Looking east.

Looking north

Looking south.

Looking West.

Friday, December 1, 2017

November Weather Data for NearSys Station

The temperature chart shows we're definitely in a cooling trend since this summer. However, NearSys Station did experience some unexpected warming in November as we experienced a halt in the cooling trend during the middle of the month.

There was gap in recording data during the Thanksgiving Holiday.
November was not a dry month, but NearSys Station only experienced four rain storms.


No snow yet. Very few rain days, but two of them produced ab half inch of rain. 




Sunday, November 26, 2017

All Sky Photometer for NearSys Station, 26 November 2017

The all sky photometer collected data on Sunday, a cloudy day at NearSys Station.

The sun sort of peaked out twice in the 26th.

Saturday, November 25, 2017

Manhattan Water Tower

I collected a thermal image of the Manhattan, KS water tower at zoological garden. I was hoping it would show the amount of water in the tank by indicating where the tank was coldest. As you can see, it appears the tank is full. But it is apparent the support structure is warmer than the tank.



Ground and Sky Thermal Observations

I spent time this week visiting family. While away, I collected several thermal observations of the clouds.

On November 20th in Colby, KS, the ground temperature was 26 *F and the cirrus clouds has a temperature was -59 *F. Assuming a dry adiabatic lapse rate of 5.4 *F, the clouds were at a height of 15,700 feet.

In Casper, WY, the ground had a temperature of 55 *F and the clouds a temperature of -29 *F. That indicated a height of 15,600 feet.




In Manhattan, KS, the ground temperature was 37 *F and the cirrus clouds had a temperature of -14 *F. That indicates a cloud height of 9,400 feet.



Wednesday, November 15, 2017

Sky and Ground Thermal Observation for NearSys Station, 15 November 2017

At 6:15 PM MDT, it's drizzling at NearSys Station and we're 100% overcast with nimbostratus. The Seek Reveal thermal imager indicated the ground temperature was 24*F and the sky temperature was 14 *F. Assuming a moist adiabatic lapse rate of 3.0 *F, the clouds overhead have a base of 3,300 feet.

There's currently no METAR for the Caldwell airport (KEUL) to cross check this estimate of cloud base height.

This blog entry was updated to correct for the error of using the dry adiabatic lapse rate.

Tuesday, November 14, 2017

All Sky Photometer for NearSys Station, 14 November 2017

All sky photometer data was collected starting at 5:44 AM MST. Below is a chart of the data collected. It's apparent that a cloud passed overhead starting at about 2:30 PM.


Sunday, November 12, 2017

Background Neutron Radiation for NearSys Station, 12 November 2017

After 159 hours of observation, five bubbles appeared in the neutron bubble detectors. That's a thermal background rate of 1.57 microrem per hour of thermal neutron radiation.

Saturday, November 11, 2017

Visibility for NearSys Station, 11 November 2017

UAVSonde images were collected over NearSys Station at 8:00 AM MST. The images indicate visibility was in excess of 50 miles.

Looking West

Looking South

Looking East
Looking North


UAVSonde Data for NearSys Station, 11 November 2017

UAVSonde data was collected at 8:00 AM MST. Here are the data.

Altitude: 2,280 feet
Temperature: 57 *F
Relative Humidity: 100%
Pressure: 916.1 mb

Altitude: 2,673 feet
Temperature: 57 *F
Relative Humidity: 100%
Pressure: 927.3 mb

There were a lot of low pressure readings on the ground and those pulled the average low.

Friday, November 10, 2017

Ground and Sky Observation for NearSys Station, 10 November 2017

It's raining at NearSys Station. A thermal observation was taken at 4:30 PM MST that indicated the ground had a temperature of 26 *F and the sky a temperature of 15 *F. Since It was raining, a moist adiobatic lapse rate of 3 *F was assumed.

A temperature difference of 11 *F determines the base of the clouds are at an altitude of 3,700 feet. The Boise METAR reported clouds at 4,000 feet.

Thermal image of nimbostratus clouds over NearSys Station.

Wednesday, November 8, 2017

All Sky Photometer for NearSys Station, 7 November 2017

The new photometer collected data all day on the 7th and this time without rain interfering. Below is the chart of the data collected.

Spiky variations in the data are due to passing clouds.  

Sunday, November 5, 2017

Visibility at NearSys Station, 5 November 2017

At 7:00 AM, the following images were taken at 400 feet AGL. Based on seeing the Boise Mountain Range, the visibility was at least 50 miles. This afternoon it's raining, the visibility has been significantly reduced.

Looking West

Looking North

Looking South

Looking West

All Sky Photometer Data for NearSys Station, 5 November 2017

It rained today, so the photometer was retrieved several hours earlier than normal. As the clouds thickened and lowered. The sky brightness can be seen to decrease.






UAVSonde Data for NearSys Station, 5 November 2017

UAVSonde data was collected at 7:00 AM MST. Here are the data.

Altitude: 2,263 feet
Temperature: 50 *F
Relative Humidity: 100%
Pressure: 917.6 mb

Altitude: 2,647 feet
Relative Humidity: 100%
Pressure: 916.1 mb

It was frosty this morning. I suspect this means I should have left the weather station outside longer before launching the UAVSonde.

Ground and Sky Thermal Observation for NearSys Station, 4 November 2017

Last night at 9:45, the ground temperature was 7 *F and the cumulus clouds has a temperature or -22 *F.

Assuming a dry adiobatic lapse rate of 5.4 degrees per 1,000 feet, that puts the cloud base at 4,800 feet.

The Boise METAR reported broken clouds at 4,200 feet.

Background Neutron Radiation for NearSys Station, 5 November 2017

After 204 hours of monitoring, six bubbles were detected in the neutron bubble detector. That's a background of 1.5 microrem per hour of thermal neutron radiation.

Wednesday, November 1, 2017

October Weather for NearSys Station

Temperatures are definitely cooling down this month at NearSys Station. After a cold snap that finished off the garden, temperatures moderated enough for me to ripen pumpkins on the back patio.

Precipitation has been scant, only 11/100ths of an inch. So rather dry. There has been no snow yet.


All Sky Photometer Data for NearSys Station, 30 October 2017

Changing the orientation of the photometer makes no difference in the red 660 nm data; it's still spiky. Otherwise, we can see that the sky was cloudy prior to noon.

The sky was clearer in the afternoon at NearSys Station.



Monday, October 30, 2017

A Science Trip to the Oregon Coast

Rachel like the Oregon Coast; in fact, it's one of her favorite places on Earth. So while we visited Yachats last weekend, I took the opportunity to do some science. It as foggy and cloudy during our visit, so I'm going to need to return for a comparison during sunny conditions.

Near Infrared and Thermal Infrared Imaging
First, I took images of the ocean and coast using my near infrared (NIR) and thermal infrared (long-wave infrared (LWIR) cameras. In NIR, smooth water appears black because surface of water does not reflect solar NIR. It appears rough water is different. The images below show the water caps reflecting plenty of NIR. During a clear day, the sky is black in NIR since molecules in the atmosphere don't refract the sun's NIR. Foggy days appear much differently.


Looking North from the beach park in Yachats, OR


Looking south from the same city park

Looking west.
 
LWIR makes a temperature map, so yellow and white are hottest and blue and black are the coldest. The rocks making up the beach are warmer than the ocean, as the image below shows.

Rocks are yellow, and therefore warmer than sea water.

Looking into the ocean during a foggy day. The striations seen in the yellow are likely waves rolling into shore. 
Muon Detection
Muons are subatomic particles and relatives of electrons (in fact, muons or mu mesons decay into electrons and have a half-life of 2.2 microseconds). Muons are created in cosmic ray collisions and reach the ground only because of time dilation due to their relativistic speeds. When muons strike materials called scintillators, they create tiny sparks of light. Photomultipliers, either tube or solid-state, amplify that tiny spark to a measurable voltage spike. The experiment I took to Yachats consists of two scintillaotr paddles and an Audrino to measure the voltage spikes created by muons passing through both scintillators. The graph below shows the incidence of muons over a nearly 12 hour long detector run.


Drone Flight
I also flew a drone over the beach and ocean to see what the ocean waves look like from up to 400 feet above the surface. Looking at waves from the beach gives no indication just how far out the waves extend.

About 200 feet above the waves looking out to the ocean.

About 400 feet up and entering the base of the clouds. 

About 100 feet out over the ocean and looking towards short from high altitude. I was worried about my drone losing power and splashing down. 
Next Time
It was too foggy and cloudy to get the data I was hoping for. so perhaps some time next year I'll head back out and get the same data during a sunny day. This would also let me gather photometer data from sea level.


 

Friday, October 27, 2017

UAVSonde Data for NearSys Station, 27 October 2017

UAVSonde data was collected at 5:45 PM MDT. Here are the data.

Altitude: 2,260 feet
Temperature: 69 *F
Relative Humidity: NA
Pressure: 942.2 mb

Altitude: 2,660 feet
Temperature: 70 *F
Relative Humidity: NA
Pressure: 917.6 mb

Visibility for NearSys Station, 27 October 2017

Based on images recorded at 400 feet AGL, the visibility at NearSys Station is at least 50 miles. The sky looks more hazy on the ground than at 400 feet.
Looking East

Looking North

Looking South

Looking West